For a single input-output case, the ratio of a unit’s output to its input. Productivity varies according to changes that occur in the production technology, the efficiency of the production process (which can be measured through DEA) and the production environment (Lovell 1993). [Lovel C A K (1993), ‘Productive frontiers and productive efficiency’, in: Fried H, Knox C A K and Schmidt S (editors) The measurement of productive efficiency: techniques and applications, Oxford University Press.]

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