Skip to toolbar

Category: Frequently Asked Question


Introduced by Banker, Chames and Cooper (1984), this model measures technical efficiency as the convexity constraint ensures that the composite unit is of similar scale size as the unit being measured. The resulting efficiency is always at least equal to the one given by the CCR model, and those DMUs with the lowest input or …

Continue reading


An input or output factor. Since these are always known beforehand, their values are actually constants.

Piecewise linearity

An efficiency frontier is piecewise linear when the underlying production function is approximated through interconnected linear segments. The basic DEA models are all piecewise linear. See Chames et al (1981) for implications. [Chames A, Cooper W W and Rhodes E (1981), ‘Evaluating program and managerial efficiency: an application of data envelopment analysis to program follow …

Continue reading

Ratio models

The CCR and BCC models both define efficiency as a ratio of weighted outputs over weighted inputs, hence they are often known as ratio models.

Reference unit

Any unit that is part of a reference set

Weight Flexibility

As the CCR primal model places no restriction on the weights other than a lower bound of epsilon, it is not rare for a unit to be rated efficient at the expense of having a very uneven distribution of weights where some or most of the factors have been practically ignored. To remedy the situation, …

Continue reading

Ordinal variable

A factor which consists of a set of predefined values that are ranked in a specific order. An ordinal variable can be seen as a special case of a categorical variable. If the values of an ordinal factor need to be scaled, the inherent order must be preserved (Cook et al 1993). [Cook W, Kress …

Continue reading

Peer group

Another name for reference set

Primal (CCR) model

The primal model allows the DMU being measured to determine the set of optimal weights for each of its factors (outputs are denoted by y. and inputs by x in the following model) so as to maximise its efficiency. The solution consists of a set of weights (for outputs and y for inputs) chosen so …

Continue reading

Units invariance

The efficiency scores of the DEA ratio models are independent of the units in which the factors are measured. The input and output values can thus be scaled through multiplication by a constant as proven in Chames and Cooper (1985). [Charnes A, Cooper W W (1985) ‘Preface to topics in data envelopment analysis’, in Thompson …

Continue reading

goin up